This regiment organized at Montgomery, Nov. 19, 1861. Ordered shortly after, to Mobile, it was attached to General Gladden's brigade, and remained there till the following February. During a stay there of two months the regiment lost 82 men by disease. It then moved into east Tennessee, and was first brigaded under Gen. Leadbetter of Mobile, afterwards under Gen. Barton of Tennesee, and in June 1862 under Col. Taylor of Kentucky. The Twenty-third performed much arduous duty in east Tennessee, and formed part of Stephenson's division, Kirby Smith's corps, in the Kentucky campaign. When the army returned to Tennessee, a brigade was formed of the Twentieth, Twenty-third, Thirtieth, Thirth-first, and Forty-sixth Alabama regiments, and placed under Gen. Tracy of Madison. In December 1862, with Stephenson's division, the Twenty-third was moved to Vicksburg, and a few days later was present at the fight at Chicasa Bayou. It was hotly engaged at Port Gibson, where the brigade commander fell, and lost heavily there in killed and wounded, and captured. Gen. S.D. Lee then took command of the brigade. At Baker's Creek the Twenty-third was engaged, and lost a number captured. The next day it was in the fight at Big Black bridge, and when the army fell back, the regiment was left, by oversight, and for twelve hours resisted the whole federal army, without severe loss. Retiring into Vicksburg, the regiment shared in that siege, fighting day and night, but without many casualties. Paroled immediately, the regiment was soon exchanged, and joined the Army of Tennessee just after the battle of Chicamauga, Gen. Pettus of Dallas commanding the brigade. The Twenty-third took part at Mission Ridge with light loss, and wintered at Dalton. At the beginning of the campaign, it suffered heavy loss at Resaca, but was constantly in front of Sherman all the way down the bloody path to Atlanta and Jonesboro, suffering very severely in the latter battle. The regiment marched with Gen. Hood into Tennessee, was engaged at Columbia with considerable loss, and at Nashville, where many of the men were captured. It guarded the rear of the retreating army, and moved into the Carolinas. From Branchville to Bentonville it fought Sherman, and was consolidated with the Forty-sixth Alabama, with J.B. Bibb as colonel, Osceola Kyle of Coosa as lieutenant colonel, and J.T. Hester as major, and surrendered at Salisbury, North Carolina. Nearly 1200 names were on the rolls of the Twenty-third; it had 436 muskets at Rocky-face, and 76 surrendered at Salisbury, under Col. Bibb.
Colonels - Franklin K. Beck of Wilcox; captured at Vicksburg; killed at Resaca. Joseph B. Bibb of Montgomery; wounded at Nashville.
Lieut. Colonels - Jos. B. Bibb of Montgomery; promoted.
Majors - Felix Tait of Wilcox; resigned. John J. Longmire of Monroe; resigned. F. McMurray of Macon; wounded at Mission Ridge; retired. A.C. Roberts of Marengo; killed at New Hope. J.T. Hester of Montgomery.
Adjutants - Henry Goldthwaite of Mobile; resigned. J. T. Norman of Macon; captured at Port Gibson. William Beard of Conecuh.
Wilcox - J.J. Longmire; promoted. G.H. Moye; resigned. W.P. Steen; captured at Vicksburg; wounded at Atlanta.
Macon - F. McMurray; wounded and captured at Port Gibson; promoted. F. Rutherford; killed at Jonesboro. Lieut. Carnie Leslie commanded.
Marengo - A.L. Norwood; resigned. A.C. Roberts; promoted. Robert Chapman.
Conecuh - D.K. Smith; resigned. J.T. Hester; promoted. James M. Anderson.
Monroe - G.G. Mathews; resigned. H.M. Graham; captured at Vicksburg.
Lowndes - Henry P. Reid; resigned. S. Oliver Merriwether; captured at Port Gibson.
Chocta - J.G. Yates; resigned. John Stevens; killed at Port Gibson. F. Butterfield; killed at Atlanta.
Conecuh - T.B. McCall; resigned. B.L. Selman; captured at Vicksburg; wounded at Resaca; Lieut. McDonald commanded.
Baldwin - R.Y. Rew; resigned. W.H. Miles; captured at Vicksburg.
Wilcox and Clarke - Wm. E. Powe; resigned. Greene D. McConnell; captured at Vicksburg.